Techirghiol, one of world’s most unique towns, with a fascinating history, benefits from the existence of special natural conditions. The climate, sapropelic mud and salt water of the Techirghiol Lake, makes this resort well known since 1899, a famous destination with a healing atmosphere.
Situated at 15 km from Constanta, the largest city in the Black Sea shore and only 3 km away from the Black Sea coast, the resort is situated in a dobrothean area. We, therefore, have to deal with a continental, steppe-climate with marine influences characterized by an annual average temperature of approximately 11 degrees Celsius, an air humidity of about 80%, almost permanent present wind, at a speed of 4-5 m/s (especially from 11am to 17pm), an average settlement of 900 positive and negative ion/cm with a slight positive predominant. The average annual temperature is of 11,2 degrees Celsius and the total precipitation is less than 400 mm annually. The undersea breeze, here, is experienced a lot less than it does on the shore. However, you can fully feel the breeze of the lake.
The testimonies of people’s existence and continuity in these places are made up of archaeological findings. The history of the houses, reach the Neolithic age, the arrangement of Techirghiol being included in the second phase of the Hamangia-Cernavoda culture.
The archaeological research carried out by Vasile Parvan since 1924, has tried to establish the past of these regions.
There are areas in the city which carry the archaeological tracks of the Hamangia-Cernavoda culture and the fingerprints of the history left in these places: The currencies of the Roman Empire, the documents of the Ottoman age, acts made by Mihail Kogalniceanu, the house and the asylum constructed by Constantin Tanase, but also the holiday houses of Mircea Eliade, Cezar Petrescu, Tudor Arghezi, Jean Constantin.
Ever since 1854 there have been the first written papers of the therapeutic qualities of mud, when a commander was healing his sick arm. Techirghiol is known as a resort since 1899. Then it was inaugurated: Techirghiol Lake, with beds and facilities for mud baths.
Techirghiol has become a holiday spot for intellectuals of that time. In parallel with the development of Mamaia, Techirghiol became a destination for high class people, interested in the therapeutic qualities of the lake with “cold baths”. Boheme moved to Techirghiol, after the First World War, Eforie became the target of money elite. The artists came to Dobrogea to draw, the writers – like Ionel Teodoreanu, for instance (who took refuge in Techirghiol, with his wife and children) – tried to write, and the actors had their headquarters in Carmen Sylva. The families of the writers Cezar Petrescu and Tudor Arghezi were summer guests of the resort.
Techirghiol oferred the high class world of the 20th century, inspiration and treatment. Camil Petrescu placed a part of his action novel The Bed of Procust in Techirghiol, an action that carried out between 1926 and 1928, and rendered words to the characters of that time period.
In 1388, Dobrogea merged for the first time with Tara Romaneasca under Mircea cel Batran’s reign.
In the mid century, Dobrogea fell under Ottoman occupation. A first documentary mention of Techirghiol villages dates from 1560 when Tekfur-Koy is named, in the permit of Suleyman the Magnificent to the ruler of Moldova. On December 1, 1878 Romanian troops entered Dobrogea, which represented factually, the provincial allusion with the country.
Mihail Kogalniceanu was one of the new inhabitants of Techirghiol, after the maintenance reforms, which bought lands and buildings around the lake, and built a public fountain in the locality, and built the Orthodox chapel in Tuzla. Among the prominent inhabitants of Techirghiol is included writer Mircea Eliade, whose parents owned a holiday house since 1906 called – Villa Claudia.
Another benefactor was Constantin Tanase. He commits himself in the construction of a sanatorium for artists (Villa Scena), and contributes financially to the Cultural Hostel and to building the St. Ilie Church.
In 1894 the Ministry of Agriculture and Domains sold charity for Euphoria Civil Hospitals in Bucharest, 100 ha at the edge of the lake. This is the first step in the form of the balneary resort surrounding the lake. The foundation of what will become Techirghiol-Eforie and then the town of today Eforie Nord, is laid.
Constantin Bajenaru is also to be remembered, one of Techirghiol’s town hall primary, who in the 30s was especially concerned about marking the beauties, city cleanness and the prosperity of the town as a balneary resort.
In 1931 the Heroes’ Monument was inaugurated in the memory of those who gave their lives during the 1916-1918 war (Techirghiol and the neighborhood paid the tribute for the 176 fallen lives) in the “General I. Dragalina” square.
Bibliografie – „Monografia Techirghiolului” de Aurelia si Stefan Lapusan